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مقدمة في علم الوبائيات Epidemiology Introduction

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  • 1 أضيفت بواسطة الكفاح

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  #1  
قديم 12-07-2011, 08:30 PM
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الكفاح will become famous soon enoughالكفاح will become famous soon enough


Definition of Epidemiology
“study of the distribution and determinants of diseases and injuries in human populations

Two major assumptions
1already mentioned, disease does not occur at random
2Disease have causal and preventive factors that be identified through investigation, with special care are looking at: place, group, time

Epidemiology as a science contrasted to other medical sciences
Three categories of disciplines that address the human health issue
.. 1Basic sciences (biology, physiology
2Clinical sciences (medicine, internal medicine, neurology
3Population medicine (public health, prevention medicine

Difference
Clinical Sciences
Sick individuals
Individual seeking help
Could dependent on PH information such as risk factors and demographic data
Take place in hospitals, clinics, wards
Public Health
Community
Not necessary seeking help
Could also dependent on the CS for proper diagnosis of the disease
Use studies of the population to recommend

Health and Disease
Health as defined by WHO is not the merely absence of disease but rather a state of complete physical, mental and social well being

Disease:
the course of a disease is called the natural history of the disease

natural history of the disease
Stage1 susceptibility: Disease is not present but the stage is prepared for it

Stage 2 pre-symptomatic
: the disease is present but not manifesting itself

Stage 3 Clinical disease: signs and symptoms are apparent

Stage 4 Disability: When the disease interfere with the individual daily activities

Prevention
Primary Prevention: includes general health promotion good nutrition, healthy work environment, health education) and Specific protective measures (immunization, environmental sanitation, protection against occupational hazard


Secondary Prevention: early detection and treatment of a disease, thus limiting complications or slowing progression
Screening for hypertension or breast cancer
Prevention
Tertiary Prevention: Limitation of disability and rehabilitation. Physiotherapy can help restore motion in a broken shoulder. Tertiary prevention focuses of the individual remain capacity and makes the most of it

Scope of Epidemiology
Epidemiology is concerned with issues such as: infectious diseases, chronic diseases, injuries, mental health, drug studies, health services research
:Famous studies
Lime and Scurvy in the British navy
John Snow and water infection in London to stop the spread of Cholera

Epidemic vs Endemic
Endemic disease: constant presence of a disease of its agent. AIDS is considered endemic in certain area of Africa
Epidemic disease: excess number of disease in a specific group or area exceeding the norm. Epidemic of bird flue, or SARS

Disease Causational models have evolved
:The simplest model used to be
Disease ـــ Human ـــ Organism

But in reality the model is more complicated than that, for one thing, not all human exposed will get the disease

There are factors that play a role of whether the disease will occur or not

Host Vs. Environmental Factors
Genetic factors have been found to play a role in many disease
Past environmental exposures
Social class
Demographic factors

Biological environment: agent ,reservoir, vectors, plants, and animal presence
Social environment: economic and political organization of a society. Food and social cultures
Physical environment: water, heat, humidity, radiation, air, light,
.
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abu zyad معجبون بهذا.


من مواضيعي : الكفاح
  رقم المشاركة : [ 3 ]
قديم 12-20-2011, 10:01 PM
افتراضي

اقتباس
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من مواضيع : الكفاح
الكفاح غير متواجد حالياً  
  رقم المشاركة : [ 4 ]
قديم 12-22-2011, 10:52 PM
صحي متمرس
 

ابويحيى will become famous soon enough
افتراضي

جزاك الله خير
من مواضيع : ابويحيى
ابويحيى غير متواجد حالياً  
  رقم المشاركة : [ 5 ]
قديم 12-23-2011, 04:06 PM
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اقتباس
  المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة ابويحيى
جزاك الله خير

من مواضيع : الكفاح
الكفاح غير متواجد حالياً  
موضوع مغلق

مواقع النشر (المفضلة)

الكلمات الدليلية (Tags)
مقدمة, الوبائيات, epidemiology, introduction, علم


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