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[align=center]السلام عليم ورحمة الله وبركاته
حبيت اقدم الموضوع للفائده للجميع عن التغيرات الطبيعه للحامل[/align]
Definition Pregnancy is where the young, or embryo and
then foetus , is carried in a woman's uterus for a period of aproximately 9 months (38 weeks post- conception ), from conception to delivery .
Pregnancy is a nine month journey for both you and your baby. During this time your own body will change, both internally and externally. Although a woman's body was beautifully designed to give birth, this process may cause a woman some discomfort and impose some limitations. Usually, exercise and good nutrition can alleviate the minor discomfort of pregnancy.
The main organs and systems affected by a woman's pregnancy are:
• Cardiovascular system
• Respiratory System
• Gastrointestinal System
Physical Changes of Pregnancy
Physiological and anatomical alterations develop in many organ systems during the course of pregnancy and delivery. Early changes are due, in part, to the metabolic demands brought on by the fetus, placenta and uterus and, in part, to the increasing levels of pregnancy hormones, particularly those of progesterone and oestrogen. Later changes, starting in mid-pregnancy, are anatomical in nature and are caused by mechanical pressure from the expanding uterus.
First Trimester (Weeks 1-12)
the baby is completely formed by 8 weeks. At three months your baby is about 3" long and weighs about 1 ounce. You may experience any of the following Physical changes.
Bleeding of the gum tissue is probably related to the increased hormone levels during pregnancy. Although this is a relatively normal condition of pregnancy, consult your dentist. It is important to visit your dentist regularly and keep your teeth healthy during pregnancy.
Breasts enlarge early in pregnancy due to increasing hormones. These hormones stimulate the development of milk producing glands and cause breast tenderness.
Occasionally, pregnant women may develop an appetite for unusual foods or substances. This is not harmful unless the pregnant woman replaces good nutrition with unhealthy foods or substances. Craving soft substances such as laundry starch or clay may be harmful and should be discussed with your doctor.
Changes of the Uterus
The uterus is a flat, pear-shaped organ. During pregnancy it becomes rounder as it enlarges and becomes softer and thicker. During the third month of pregnancy, it rises out of the pelvis into the abdominal cavity to allow for growth and expansion as your baby develops.
Fatigue is a common symptom early in pregnancy caused by the physical, emotional, and hormonal changes in your body. Fatigue usually subsides after the first few months.
Hearing the Fetal Heartbeat
The heart rate will be heard for the first time between 8 and 12 weeks.
HeartburnHeartburn is a result of relaxation of the lower end of the esophagus. The pregnant uterus presses upward on the stomach, pushing stomach contents into the esophagus, which causes a burning sensation in the upper abdomen.
Nausea and VomitingNausea and vomiting, also called morning sickness, are early signs of pregnancy. They may appear sometime after the first missed menstrual period and may last until the fourth month of pregnancy. Nausea may occur upon arising in the morning or at any time of the day. Eating small frequent amounts of carbohydrate foods, like *****ers, toast, rice and pasta, may help with nausea.
Pelvic JointsThe joints in the pelvic area become more relaxed throughout pregnancy due to a hormone called relaxin which is present during pregnancy.
Pressure of the enlarging uterus on the bladder causes you to urinate more frequently.
A white, mucous-like discharge may be present early in pregnancy. Daily bathing is essential to keep the area clean.
Second Trimester (Weeks 13-28)
At 6 months your baby is about 12" long and weighs about 1-2 lbs. Your baby does not have a lot of weight gain but does have a lot of development. You may experience any of the following physical changes.
The breasts become larger, firmer and more tender. The nipple and areola become darker in color. Tiny sebaceaus glands in the areola enlarge and may appear as little bumps.
Changes of the Uterus
The uterus again changes size and shape. The globular shape changes to an oval shape as it increases in size. It rises to the abdominal cavity reaching the navel at about 20 weeks. The uterus is felt as a firm, fluid-filled sac. As the uterus rises into the abdomen, urinary frequency subsides.
Circulatory SystemBlood volume increases during the second trimester. The heart needs to pump about 50% more blood per minute than before pregnancy.
Fetal MovementsFetal movements, also called quickening, are felt by the mother at intervals throughout the day. The movements are very faint at first, but feel stronger and sometimes can be seen as pregnancy progresses. the doctor will want to know the first time felt baby move.
Heartburn and IndigestionThe enlarging uterus exerts pressure on the stomach, pushing its contents back up to the esophagus. Heartburn and indigestion may be relieved by eating smaller, more frequent meals. Avoid lying flat or bending over immediately after eating.
Linea NigraThis appears as a dark line extending from the navel to the pubic hair area. It disappears after delivery. The external genitalia may also darken in color.
Mask of PregnancyThe mask of pregnancy, also called chloasma, may appear as irregular spots or blotches of a muddy brown color on the face. This condition disappears after delivery.
The body's metabolism increases. Fatigue felt in the first weeks of pregnancy disappears. Your energy level rises.
Stretch MarksStretch marks may develop on the sides of the abdomen and on the thighs, hips, and breasts. They may appear red in color. After delivery, the marks may remain and take on a silvery white appearance. During pregnancy, good nutrition provides some protection from stretch marks. Lotions and creams soothe the itching as the abdomen expands.
Spider VeinsFine blue lines on the body may become more pronounced. There is also an increase in the oil and sweat glands of the body which may cause the skin to itch.
Weight GainWeight begins to increase during the second half of pregnancy. Ask your doctor about proper weight gain proportions.
Third Trimester (Weeks 29-40)Weight gain and growth are rapid for your baby in this trimester. All organs are maturing. At birth the average baby is 18-22" long and weighs 7-8 pounds. You may experience any of the following physical changes.
Ankle SwellingSwollen ankles during pregnancy are a common condition. Prolonged sitting or standing, warm weather and excessive salt intake increase swelling. Elevate your legs and feet several times a day. If your job requires prolonged standing or sitting or you are planning a long trip, change positions, stretch and walk periodically to stimulate circulation.
Muscular fatigue and strain may result because the growing uterus causes your body to become off balance. You may even develop a waddle walk if the ligaments of the pelvis soften and cause the bones of the pelvis to be less stable.
The breasts continue to enlarge with a feeling of fullness. A yellow to whitish liquid may begin to leak from the nipples. Keep the nipple area clean and dry. Clean with warm water, but do not use soap.
As the fetus grows larger, the uterus crowds the abdominal cavity and may cause shortness of breath.
Constipation, caused by a decrease in bowel activity, may occur due to the relaxation of muscular structure of the intestines during pregnancy. Constipation can be aggravated by pressure from the uterus on the intestines and from some medications. Decreased bowel activity also causes flatulence, or gas. Eat plenty of fiber, drink eight glasses of liquid, and exercise moderately each day.
Heartburn may reappear due to crowding of the stomach by the enlarging uterus. Eat small, frequent meals.
This may occur if you are in a very warm, crowded area. Sudden changes of position or standing for long periods of time can cause a feeling of light-headedness. Faintness may also be brought on by lying flat on your back and by poor nutrition.
Genital AreaThere may be an increase in the thin, mucous discharge from the vagina. Daily bathing is recommended. Do not douche.
Hemorrhoids are varicose veins around the lower rectum and anus. They are caused by constipation and straining during a bowel movement. Hemorrhoids appearing during pregnancy or during pushing in labor usually subside after delivery.
InsomniaThe discomfort caused by a heavy uterus and enlarged abdomen may make sleep difficult. One of the most comfortable positions is lying on your side with a pillow between your legs and under your abdomen.
Leg Pain or NumbnessPain is often felt down the back of the legs. This is caused by the direct pressure of the baby's head on the sciatic nerve. There is no specific cure. This pain is relieved as the baby's head moves downward.
Uterine CrampingThese mild contractions, often referred to as Braxton-Hicks contractions, are commonly felt during the latter part of pregnancy. They are irregular, fail to increase in strength or frequency and are felt in the lower abdomen. Report any regular contraction pattern to your doctor.
The growth of the uterus keeps pace with fetal growth. The walls of the uterus become thinner as it stretches. About two weeks before your due date, the fetus lowers into the brim of the pelvis. This occurrence is sometimes called lightening or dropping.
Urinary FrequencyThis condition reappears in the third trimester when the bladder is compressed by the enlarged uterus.
This condition is caused by weakening of the walls and valves of the veins. Blood collects in the veins causing poor circulation in the legs and lower abdominal area.
Weight Gainthe will notice a steady increase in weight of approximately one pound each week. If excessive weight gain occurs--three to five pounds in one week--contact with doctor. Gradual weight gain is expected. If you begin to lose weight, contact with doctor.[/align]
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