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The name of God the Merciful
Radiation and risk prevention
The use of nuclear Radiation in the medical field can be divided into two main sections:
1st use in the diagnosis of disease and illness: there is almost devoid of any hospital or health facility, whatever the size of the X-ray diagnostic system ..
The simplest of these devices, which device is used to identify fractures or lung disease and heart. The evolution in this area is a very dramatic development can not be
Talk about such urgency, but I refer to some of the radiological examinations, which have become an integral part of any general hospital, a CT
And X-ray bone survey examined the use of isotopes and the functions of the heart and kidneys.
2nd use in the field of treatment: this use is often not only in
For example, specialized places in the city of Riyadh, no such devices in the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center at Armed Forces Hospital (military).
This use also includes the use of certain radioactive materials that could be addressed to the patient for the treatment of some diseases, for example, radioactive iodine is an effective treatment for certain cases
Of thyroid cancer and even to some thyroid diseases other than cancer.
Adds d. Alhaabanp: From the Rights of nuclear radiation .. It also shows the serious consequences that might be wrought by this radiation on living organisms and the environment in general. So
Developed laws and international standards specify how to handle the most optimal and secure with the standards based on scientific foundations supported by the experience and learning gained rights during the decades of dealing with the radiation, either in peaceful areas and even in the military.
At the international level there is the world body for radiation protection (ICRP)
It gives the recommendations, but can not impose these recommendations on a particular country.
In Saudi Arabia started years ago, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology to do this task as well as they are now seeking to do the oversight .. So that it can
Facility to prevent any controls and do not abide by the standards of the use or dealing with
This radiation and by not issuing licenses to them. This means that the role is a regulatory and oversight.
It is worth mentioning that the laws and regulations that take into account the city from the international recommendations.
But the emphasis here should be the direct responsibility of each business deals
With nuclear radiation in the care to ensure the highest degree of safety and protection to its employees and Mrajaiha. In the King Faisal Specialist Hospital, for example, there is a special section responsible for
This is under the direct supervision of the Executive Director of the Research Center.
On the effects of critical rays on patients and medical workers between the d. Alhaabanp saying:
The effects of nuclear radiation on humans has been studied and determine the dimensions are
Accurate over the past decades. There he learned a stand-alone so-called science of radiation biology (Rediobiology) explore these effects.
Prior to the introduction of these effects should be emphasized that it depends on the incidence and seriousness of
On a number of issues including:
1st type of radiation: a kind of nuclear radiation is not one but several types, such as protons and electrons, and alpha and beta rays and neutrons each of which has a known and specific effects.
2. The amount of radiation: the radiation and the specific units to measure the quantity, the more increased the likelihood of the amount expected.
3rd period of exposure: the increased duration of exposure increased the expected impact.
4. The distance between the radiation source and the person Almtard: As I said the distance has the expected effects.
The presence of shields and protective clothing and appropriate essential part
Protection programs, according to the criteria used.
5. Age: children and adolescents was more dangerous than adults, and can be summarized as the health risks of nuclear radiation are as follows:
1st occurrence of certain types of cancer: it has become known for many years that exposure to high doses of nuclear radiation (very much higher than is normally found)
May cause an increase in cancers such as acute leukemia and thyroid cancer and breast cancer. This knowledge has been through things most of follow-up several minutes for the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been monitoring these survivors and the medical follow-up and then on a regular basis, roughly (.120000) of whom (.90000) were subjected to high doses. These cancers do not occur immediately after exposure to radiation, but may take several years to 50 years in the case of children.
2nd occurrence of congenital malformations of the fetus: The vulnerability of pregnant women to radiation may expose the fetus to the serious effects of these impacts depends on the stage of pregnancy in which exposure and the dose, if the exposure in the first week of pregnancy, this leads to the death of the fetus, exposure in the weeks the following six, this may lead to congenital malformations. Finally, exposure to radiation in the last two months of pregnancy did not prove that it causes any birth defects. Here it should be emphasized the paramount importance for the prevention of radiation exposure for pregnant women and to all pregnant women to inform the medical team directly on the existence of any possibility, even if weak, of the existence of pregnancy by exposing them to any kind of radiation, with the observation that screening ultrasound or MRI does not have any exposure of radiation and is sound waves or magnetic field is therefore used to examine the safety of pregnant women).
3rd infertility: when was testicles direct radiation may cause infertility, which can be either temporary or permanent depending on the dose that has been subjected to it. Also, the radiation exposure of the ovaries leading to infertility in women, if they exceed certain levels, and dose-specific.
4th direct effects: these occur in the place who had been exposed to radiation Kedzlkhat skin and hair loss as well as nausea and vomiting when exposed to radiation of the digestive system, but these effects do not occur only when exposure to high therapeutic doses are often temporary, to compensate for the body within weeks after treatment.
Finally, it should be emphasized that these effects are rare if the exposure was under medical supervision, and followed the laws and regulations established by the international recommendations. It is also in the case of the use of nuclear radiation for the treatment or diagnosis, the usefulness of them much, much more than collateral damage, so-rays are a very effective therapeutic in the treatment of many tumors in the diagnosis of many diseases.
And the protection of patients and staff on the equipment of the harmful effects of radiation, Dr. Alhaabanp Mohammed that God can protect patients and staff, as well as society at large from the dangers of nuclear radiation, inter alia, most notably the commitment to laws and regulations stipulated by the international recommendations and decided by the International Commission for Radiation Protection ( ICRP) and the follow-up and supervision of the application we have here in the Kingdom of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology. If this commitment were the risks are very limited and rare.
The second and equally important is to spread awareness among the general public about the dangers of the wrong use of nuclear radiation and to give the example of a work by some of the patients repeated radiological examinations of the same health problem and to attend more than one hospital or clinic and leniency in the exposure to radiation, on the pretext of increase in the assurance or verification of the validity of diagnosis, and, most seriously, that this be done without the patient's medical team had been briefed on what had been the work of the tests in the previous period of assessment. This may lead to the patient exceed the permissible limits of doses that a person can be exposed without significant damage.
Finally, the global body for protection from radiation build instructions on three essential points, namely:
1st justified use of radiation: the use of nuclear radiation must be justified, so that in the calculation of benefits in return for greater benefits to be injured.
2nd optimal use: any use of or exposure should be kept at the lowest possible level goal lead it.
3rd specific use: the exposure must not exceed the allowable dose limits for the particular development.
Periodic examination of workers
Meanwhile, speaking of the decision of the Standing Committee on Radiological Protection, Dr. Ahmed bin Mohammed rapid saying:
Diagnostic Radiology is currently considered to be responsible for the largest dose of creativity in human beings. At the world level is approximately 1500 million, an annual examination and x-ray examination of the range of a single dose (one shot only) between, 02 and 10 mSv or so in the States where the X-ray control, and specialized national bodies.
In the other has more than 4 to 5 times because of the absence of quality testing equipment and the use of old techniques and the film is weak and sensitive to repeat the image more than once.
The widespread proliferation of the use of radiation with a great turn-around in the cultural renaissance of the Kingdom has emerged in the deployment of multiple uses, including medical, scientific and industrial research as well, and show images of medical uses of ionizing radiation in very many pictures of the most common X-ray (diagnostic area) for patients and visitors to the private and public clinics even at the level of health centers in residential areas in the images of the peaceful uses of ionizing rays and a CT scan all parts of the human body, as well as Filorskubi is the most sensitive to the workers and because of the length of the emission of radiation during the imaging procedure, as well as in dentistry and the diagnosis of cases, where almost every patient is diagnostic photographed him, perhaps for multiple tooth per patient, as well as X-ray (Almimujram) of the breast and the other too much.
This is in addition to uses in the treatment and there is at present in the world about 18000-ray machine used to treat
Some tumors to kill tumor cells, it has also become the images, including cobalt therapy and accelerated radiation therapy and other forms of radiation sources of gamma rays, which are the same characteristics of X-ray, however, that the period of exposure to these sources are often of greater periods of time, as well as large doses of radiation depending on the situation be treated and the dose required.
Photos and other frequently used in nuclear medicine where radioactive sources and the open, which is used to inject the patient for the examination of a particular member or a specific part of the body of the patient and are using the gamma-ray imaging (Gamakamira), which has become large and that are in harmony with the cultural and technological transformation of the Kingdom and the use of a variety of sources, including like 124 and 131 and would like xenon 133 as well as Tknseyoum 99, phosphorus 32, and others.
And defines d. Ahmed rapid, saying the risks of ionizing radiation: The significant risks of ionizing radiation on human beings and living organisms and has an impact on the solids and the degree of risk, ranging from the least marks the beginning of the smallest particles in the ionization of water and the change in the composition and function of the cell and a decrease in the number of white blood cells, red skin and cataracts through random effects of genetic and non-random access to the cancer and Allukima and hair loss and the fall of the nail and the end of death, whether immediate or future, all these symptoms depends on the degree of exposure to ionizing radiation, according to data of the International Radiation Protection ICRP it when there is an annual dose of 10 mSv, the probability of infection is an individual 1000, one for each individual and thus in direct proportion with the increase in the annual dose.
In the opinion of the Scientific Committee of the United Nations, the doses are deposited by the practices of treatment compared with low radiation dose deposited by the practice of radiological diagnosis.
Radiation and the risk factor:
Risk factor used to estimate the risk of random effects (random appearance of disease) for example, the cancer risk factor is the individual risk of cancer when exposed to a dose equivalent of 1 mSv, and this possibility with the increase in direct proportion to the dose for example, if the probability of cancer at a dose of 4 Sv is 40 %, the ratio becomes 50% at a dose of 5 mSv, and so on.
If we are talking about the genetic effects of ionizing radiation as it is of great concern for workers in this area and produce effects on genetic damage and atrophy of the reproductive cells and thus lead to many changes, known as genetic mutation, a change in the genetic traits carried by the sperm and egg or one of each a change in the genetic characteristics.
For your information the radiation is the only one responsible for genetic change, but there are other factors.
Protection begins from the X-ray and ionizing radiation for workers and patients from the beginning of the development and creation of rooms and laboratories at the founding of ionizing radiation are established commitment to the principles and fundamentals the following:
1 - X-ray machines are on the ground floor.
2 - lined the walls of rooms ray thickness appropriate lead.
3 - the establishment of a barrier to work Leaded glass from behind.
4 - not to the beam and the neighboring rooms inhabited.
5 - make sure there is no leakage of radiation behind the barrier of the operator or out of the room.
6 - the establishment of records of radiation doses for workers and patients.
7 - is a survey on radiation devices and rooms of ionizing radiation factor.
8 - To provide tools and personal protection for workers.
9 - to stand behind the barrier to be allocated during the filming.
10 - The rooms and the X-factor of the ionizing radiation exclusion zones.
11 - Prevention of any individual during the operation only when absolutely necessary to be wearing protective clothing.
12 - careful not to present the multiplicity of patient radiation doses can be avoided.
13 - commitment to the foundations and rules of dealing with radioactive devices and sources, especially Filorskubi examination.
14 - A medical examination of the workers every six months at least and the preservation of the results.
15 - personal dosimetry of workers in the field of ionizing radiation once every two months and the follow-up of annual and periodic reports
King Khalid Civil Hospital, Tabuk
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