In scientific research
Characteristics of X-ray
How to produce X-ray
X-ray, also known as X-ray, one of the most useful types of energy. The world discovered by German physicist Wilhelm Rontjn in 1895. Because he did not know what they were at the beginning, it was Rontjn the name of this X-ray x; any X-ray, because (o) in Arabic and (x) in the English Scientific Launch Ramzan to the unknown.
Now scientists know that the X-ray is a type of electromagnetic radiation which includes visible light and radio waves and gamma rays. Involving X-ray and visible light, and in many characteristics. For example, move the speed of light X-ray 299.792 km / s, and that both the X-ray and visible light, moving in straight lines in the form of electric energy and magnetic energy associated with each cause some electromagnetic waves together. On the other hand, X-ray film optical blur, as does light.
However, the X-ray and light in different wavelength is the distance between Dhirutin of the electromagnetic wave. Length of the X-ray wavelength is much shorter than the wavelength of the light. For this reason, X-ray can penetrate a lot of material that does not put the light. The force of penetration as well as other characteristics, X-rays to be of maximum benefit in medicine, industry and scientific research.
The X-ray changes in the vitality and the physical and chemical materials; If a plant or animal absorbed this radiation, they may damage living tissue, and sometimes destroyed. For this reason, can be dangerous. Has caused an overdose of X-ray of human cancer, infection, or burns the skin, or a decrease in the supply of blood Oouhalat other serious. And X-rays also cause mutations in living organisms. This occurs as a result of a change in the amino acid molecules d. N. A chromosome, which is in the form of particles. The amino acid molecules with d. N. A, the genetic information of the organism. Typically, the mutations change the genetic natures of the organism, as well as characteristics such as size change. See: genetics; biological mutation. The dentists and specialists ray special attention or not to expose patients to expose themselves to increased doses of radiation.
X-rays produced naturally in the sun and other stars and Nadat, and certain other celestial objects. The majority of X-rays that arise from sources in space, is absorbed in the atmosphere before it reaches the earth's surface. Produces X-ray machine-mediated X-ray tubes which are a key part of the X-ray machines. The devices, which accelerate atomic particles are also produced X-rays and devices include Albettatronat, and linear accelerators. See: Betatron, organ.
X-rays are used widely for the work of tariff radiation (X-rays) of the bones of the body and interior. Benefit from the tariff of doctors in the detection of radioactive anomalies and diseases, such as broken bones or lung disease within the patient's body, and the benefit of the dental X-rays to detect the gaps and filled teeth. See: Dental.
Be prepared demarcated beam of radiation passing through the X-ray of the patient's body to a part of the film projector. The bones absorb the radiation, which absorbs more muscle or other member, and receive great long shadow on the film, while allowing other parts of the body over a quantity of radiation than allowed by the bone, and the shadows are different degrees of intensity. The shadows of the bones clearly demarcated areas of the flare radiation, while the members appear in the form of a more darker areas. The specialist can see the rays of the patient's body during the performance of their functions, using the X-ray detector called fluoroscopy. Make a special X-ray screen glowing in the body when faced by. See: of fluoroscopy; fluorination.
And sometimes are made of non-harmful to the human body, leading to the emergence of certain clearly demarcated radioactive or fluorescent image. Handing the patient the doctor has a solution of barium sulfate to drink before exposing the small X-ray Vtemts barium sulfate X-ray, clearly shown in the image of the small intestine X-rays.
X-rays are used widely in the treatment of cancer, it kills the cancer cells easier than killing normal cells. Could expose the cancerous tumor of the small dose of X-ray. In many cases X-rays destroy the tumor, but damage nearby healthy tissue is less.
The X-ray other purposes in medicine. It is used to sterilize medical equipment such as surgical gloves or rubber and having a Almhaknat. This equipment damaged when exposed to high temperatures and therefore can not be sterilized by boiling.
. X-ray used to examine the products made from various types of materials, including aluminum, steel and other metal castings. Photo of radioactive reveal *****s and other defects in these products, which do not appear on the surface. Are often used to examine the X-ray quality welds in steel and other metal fixtures. X-rays are also used to examine the quality of many manufactured products in large quantities such as transistors and other small electronic devices. Some devices and examine the use of X-ray of metals, such as scanners used at airports to search for weapons in luggage.
Manufacturers and address certain types of plastics, where X-ray radiation occurring chemical change in the material making them stronger. The strong X-ray used to help control the insect epidemic called Aseru fly. Vzkor This insect can not produce offspring after exposure to X-ray. In addition, X-rays have been used to a change in the genetic characteristics of barley. This has produced new varieties of barley the rate of grain, some of which can grow in poor soil is unable to produce normal barley.
In scientific research. X-rays were used to analyze the arrangement of atoms in many types of materials, particularly crystals. The atoms are organized in levels of crystals separated by regular distances. When the fall of the X-ray beam on the crystallization, the levels of the atoms act Kmraiya publish any small depart-ray pattern of the systems. Each type of crystal diffraction pattern is different. Scientists have learned much about the arrangement of atoms in the crystals to study the different types of coral. The study defines how the crystals deviate by X-ray crystallography science of radiation ray. The scientists also used X-ray analysis to assist in the installation and the formation of many complex chemical substances such as enzymes, proteins and DNA undersecured oxygen (d. N. A).
And release of certain materials-ray wavelength of a special article when exposed to radiation from electrons or protons or high-energy X-ray. Called this method of measurement for the analysis of X-ray spectrum. We have the technology to reach the scientists to the discovery of new chemical elements.
Archaeologists have used X-ray examination of the ancient objects covered with thick crust of dirt or corrosion. This method allows researchers to see a picture of something without trying to raise the crust, which may lead to the destruction of the sample. Also used X-rays also revealed the origin of a covered image of the original drawings the other.
The astronomers used كشافات X-ray and X-ray telescopes for follow-up X-rays from celestial objects. In practice, all the X-ray on the ground is the discovery of rights, but in many celestial objects, such as the sun or black holes are made in the physical energy produces very high X-ray. It consists of X-ray telescopes mirrors specially designed to reflect the X-ray projection Almmasi. X-rays pass through normally without being reflected in the mirror. But if the angle between the direction of X-ray and the surface of the mirror is very small, the X-ray of the back surface. Perspectives have been used to obtain X-ray images of the sun to show areas of high solar activity.
Characteristics of X-ray
Contains the electromagnetic radiation is short wavelength energy than the electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength long. X-ray and shorter wavelengths and higher energies compared to other types of electromagnetic radiation. The wavelength range of X-rays from about 100 to Angstrom Angstrom. It contains an article on the Encyclopedia of electromagnetic waves by a chart comparing the X-ray and various types of electromagnetic radiation.
Because many of the important characteristics of X-ray wavelength of the short length and large capacity. Can be compared with the behavior of X-ray behavior of visible light. For example, X-rays penetrate materials more deeply penetrating light of the normal, owing to the high capacity of light energy substantially. It can not be easily reversed mirror-mediated, as is happening to the light of the fact that the high capacity makes it penetrates the mirror, rather than reflections on the surface.
Does not break any X-ray did not bow a lot when moving from article to another article, as it does when light passes from air into glass. Broken lens Valdu mediated by the interaction of light waves with the electrons in the atoms of the lens. However, the X-ray Moggio short length so that it goes through without a lot of material to interact with the electrons. When X-rays fall on the article, article on impact absorbed Baliketronat atoms in the article. And the number of electrons in the atom equals the atomic number. See: corn. Therefore, materials which are atoms with large atomic number of X-ray absorbing more of the articles which are atoms with atomic number is small. Lead has atomic number 82 and the average X-ray more than many other materials.
Therefore, it is usually used for the prevention of X-ray. The beryllium of atomic number 4 Vimits a small fraction of the X-ray.
And X-ray absorption depends on the intensity of the article, and on other factors, vehicles, materials with high density of X-ray absorbing material more densely least. If Article X-ray absorbed sufficient energy, they are able to expel electrons from the atoms of the article. When the atom is electrically neutral, or lose electrons, they become a significant shipment of charged electric called Ion. This process is called ionization. And cause ionization of different types of bio-chemical changes and physical, which makes X-rays are useful and dangerous at the same time.
How to produce X-ray
Produce X-rays were more high-energy electrons with the loss of sudden energy. The organs of the production of electron beam to increase the speed to very high speeds, and then make it hit a piece of solid material, called the objective, then slow down suddenly due to a collision of electrons Baldhirat in the end, and become part of its energy to the X-ray. The doctors called the X-ray resulting from the Bermstrahlong a German word which means curbing the radiation.
Expel some electrons with high energy electrons from the usual location, in the target atoms. When these electrons return to their evicted or are the sites of other electrons produce X-ray as well. Physicists called this characteristic X-ray radiation. Bermstrahlong and a wide range of wavelength, and the characteristic X-ray has a specific wavelength depends on the electronic structure of atoms by the radiation. See: corn.
Produces X-ray tubes X-ray-mediated discharge of the high medical and industrial uses of the many. And adapted these pipelines to matrass tight stoves inside the extremes of one positive and one negative, persons held to tightly. See: Electrode. The cathode contains a negative pole, a small file on the wire while the elevator is composed of any of the positive mass of metal. And the runway and the elevator in the most X-ray tubes of tungsten or similar metal can bear high temperature.
When the operation of X-ray tube, applies an electric current through the cathode causes celebrities until the white because of the heat. The start of electron temperature of the runway. At the same time, highlights a very high between the runway and lift. Result in higher effort to move the free electrons of very high-speed lift, which serves as the goal. The electrons move easily through the space between the runway and the goal, because the tube does not contain almost impedes air movement.
When the electrons hit the target, producing x-ray, as from heat. And from X-ray of the target in many directions, but most of it is absorbed mediated cover the tube, which takes the metal Balonpopp. There are aspects of a small window out of a precise beam of X-ray, can be corrected to bring any object to be X-rayed it. Ibtun Fund and the tube to absorb the dead stray X-rays, the Fund also contains oil, water and cooling to remove the tube. And adopt energy, or force a breakthrough, produced by X-ray tube on the value of electrical potential between the cathode and target. Pay HV electrons strongly towards the goal, and a card higher than in the case of a weak effort. And become more breakthrough X-ray, the faster the electrons. And control the lifting or reduction of effort through the control.
In most X-ray tubes from the electrical potential of about 20.000 and 250.000 volts. This range effort generates X-rays with sufficient capacity for most medical purposes. It also can be found in the efforts of the amount of 300 million electron volts (300 Megafullt) or higher in Albettatronat and linear accelerators. Used X-rays from these devices for medical purposes and purposes of scientific research.
Kchw world Rontjn x-ray in 1895, after the testing and to achieve most of their properties. The discovery of this latest boom between scientists and the public. In the next few months, doctors began to use X-rays to examine the broken bone.
In 1896 the American inventor Thomas Edison to develop fluorosis detector, in order to see the use of X-rays. During the seven years following the scientists and inventors to improve the performance of X-ray tube. In 1913 the American physicist invented William College way to raise the efficiency of X-ray tube. And X-ray tube is the basis of the type developed by the College.
In the seventies of the twentieth century began to specialists in the use of radiation for the registration of a new X-ray images. One of these is called X-ray dry roads, and the registration of the image on the transparent plastic film instead of photosynthesis. Characterized by X-ray powder that is less costly and requires X-ray Taarba less than in the old process. In another process known as digital imaging, Girl Scouts used to measure X-rays, which pass through the body. And sends this information to the computer, which converts the data to the image of the movement to present to the TV screen. The image is stored on magnetic disk.
The use of digital imaging in computer tomography imaging scanner, a machine gives the X-ray CT images of the patient's body. Called CT scanner software package of the accuracy of X-ray line pen lead, through the body from different angles. The detectors measure the radiation in, and the computer to transfer images from many different destinations to a single CT image. The CT scanner will help doctors to see computer images of the detailed members of the various tissues, the differences for a better high.
Greetings to you
Nawaf EL ATAWI
King Khalid Civil Hospital, Tabuk
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