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أسئلة لتدقيق الخطة الإستراتيجية

ملتقى الجودة وسلامة المرضى
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قديم 02-03-2011, 09:50 PM
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تحسين الآداء will become famous soon enough


QUESTIONS FOR


THE STRATEGIC AUDIT*



CIRCUMSTANCE: Assume you are a consultant for a consulting firm that has a contract to do a strategic audit for this organization. Your firm will provide a report on the results of your audit to the board of directors and the CEO. The contract calls for the report to include an environmental scan, at least three strategic key success of the strategy, the client organization also wants advise on what operational and strategic key success factors they should monitor
Below is a list of standardized questions and guidelines that your consulting firm has developed for similar contracts. It is not an all-inclusive list, but it does present many critical questions needed for the strategic analysis of organizations


This questionnaire parallels the steps in the Strategic Audit Format which your consulting firm has prescribed for strategic audits. As with all other reports, your strategic audit will be reviewed and evaluated by the senior partner of the firm before it is released to the client.


QUESTIONS


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


Does the executive summary explain the purpose of the audit?

Does the executive summary include at least one sentence that explains the findings of the strategic audit in each of the following areas: Current performance, vision, strategic mangers; strategic factors identified as to their SWOT classification; identification of the best strategy; how to implement; and, operational and strategic critical success factors including their performance measures?

I. Current Situation


Current Performance

1. How is the organization performing in relation to return on investment, overall market share, profitability trends, earnings per share, stock price (its 52-week high, low, and why it is sell at the current price)? If not for profit, use other indicators to describe current performance.
2. What other broader measures of performance, such as percent market share, marketing promotion efforts, and budgetary indicators (for non-profit) provide indicators of current performance?
3. What indicators are being used by the organization to judge its current performance?


Current Vision: Mission, Objectives, Strategic, and Policies

1. What business is the organization in and what is its distinctive competence?
2. What is the organization’s current mission, objectives, strategic, and policies?

a. Is the vision clearly stated or is it merely implied from performance?
b. Mission: What is the purpose or reason for the organizations existence? Does their mission statement match the business they are in?
c. Objectives: What are the organizational and functional objectives? Are they consistent with each other, with the mission, and with the internal and external environments?
d. Strategies: What strategy or mix of strategies (i.e., corporate, SBU, and functional) is the organization following? Are they consistent with each other, with the mission and objectives and with the internal and external environments?
e. Policies: What are they? Are they consistent with each other, with the mission, objectives, and strategies, and with the internal and external environments?

Strategic Managers/Leaders

Board of Directors

1. Who are they?
2. Do they own significant shares of stock?
3. Is the stock privately held or publicly traded?
4. What do they contribute to the organization (knowledge, skills, background, and connections)?
5. How long have they served on the board? What can be concluded from their profile (young, old-aggressive, conservative – inside, outside – male, female)?
6. What is their level of involvement and degree of impact on strategic management? Do they merely rubber-stamp top management’s proposals or do they actively participate and suggest future directions?

Top Management

1. What person, team or group constitutes top management?
2. Who is the CEO? What is his/her style and philosophy of management? Is he or she a leader or manager? What impact does he or she have on the direction of the organization, and what is the salary?
3. What are top management’s chief characteristics (knowledge, skills, background, and style)? What is their vision and philosophy of management?
4. Who has been responsible for the organization’s performance over the past few years?
5. Has top management established a systematic approach to the formulation, implementation, and evaluation and control of strategic management?
6. What is top management’s level of involvement in the strategic management process?
7. How well does top management interact with lower-level management?
8. How well does top management interact with the board of directors?
9. Is top management sufficiently skilled to cope with likely future challenges?
10. Is top management dynamic, innovative and aggressive or more passive and maintenance oriented?
11. Is their salary appropriate to the level of organizational performance? What is the CEO’s total compensation?

II. Environmental Scan


External Environment – Identify Opportunities (O) and Threats (T), (S.W.O.T.) and identify which are strategic factors for each of the following:

Societal Environment (Analyze Opportunities (O) and Threats (T) separately)

1. What general environmental factors among the socio-cultural, economic, political-legal, and technological forces are currently affecting both the organization and the industries in which it competes? Which present current or future threats/opportunities?
2. Which of these environmental factors are currently the most important (i.e., strategic factors) to the organization and to the industries in which competes? Which will be important in the future?

Task Environment (O) & (T)

1. What forces in the industry (i.e., Porters five factors: threat of new entrants, bargaining power of buyers, threat of substitute products or services, bargaining power of suppliers, rivalry among competing firms) and the relative power of unions, governments, and other stakeholders are currently affecting the level of competitive intensity within the industries in which the organization offers products or services?
2. Which key stakeholders (i.e., customers, competitors, suppliers, creditors, labor unions, governments, trade associations, interest groups local communities, and stockholders) are currently affecting the organization? Which present current or future threats/opportunities?
3. Which of these forces and factors are the most important (i.e., which are strategic factors) now? Which will be important in the future?

Internal Environment – Identify Strengths (S) and Weaknesses (W), (S.W.O.T.) and identify which are strategic factors for each of the following:

Organization Structure (S) & (W)

1. How is the organization presently structured (mechanism or organic)?
a. Is decision – making authority centralized around one group or decentralized to many groups or units?
b. Is it organized based on functions, projects, geography, or some combination of these?
2. Is the structure clearly understood by everyone in the organization?

3. Is the present structure consistent with current organization objectives, strategies, policies, and programs?

4. In what ways does this structure compare with those of similar organizations?

Organization Culture (S) & (W)

1. Is there a well-defined or emerging culture composed of shared benefits, expectations, and values? Describe the culture.
2. Is the culture consistent with the current objectives, strategies, policies, and programs?
3. How does the culture relate to important issues facing the organization (that is, on productivity, quality, and adaptability to change)?

Organization Resources (S) & (W)

1. Marketing (S) & (W)

a. What are the organization’s current marketing objectives, strategies, policies, and programs?
i) Are they clearly stated, or merely implied from performance and/or budgets?
ii) Are they consistent with the organization’s mission, objectives, strategies, policies, and with internal and external environments?

b. How well is the organization performing in relation to market position and marketing mix (e.g., the four P’s of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion)?
i) What trends emerge from this analysis?
ii) What impact have these trends had on past performance and how will they probably affect future performance?
iii) Does this analysis support the organization’s past and pending strategic decision?

c. How well does this organization’s marketing performance compare with those of similar organizations?
d. Are marketing managers using accepted marketing concepts and techniques to evaluate and improve product performance? (Consider product life cycle, market segmentation, market research, and product portfolios.)
e. What is the role of the marketing manager in the strategic management process?

2. Finance (S) & (W)
a. What are the organization’s current financial objectives, strategies, policies, and programs?
i) Are they clearly stated or merely implied from performance and/or budgets?
ii) Are they consistent with the organization’s mission, objective, strategies, policies, and with internal and external environments?

b. How well is the organization performing financially? (Consider liquidity, profitability, activity, leverage ratios, and capitalization structure, in constant dollars.)
i) What trends emerge from the analysis?
ii) Are there any significant differences when statements are calculated in constant versus reported dollars?
iii) What impact have these trends had on the past performance and how will they probably affect future performance?
iv) Does this analysis support the organization’s past and pending strategic decisions?
c. How well does this organization’s financial performance compare with that of similar organizations?
d. Are financial managers using accepted financial concepts and techniques to evaluate and improve current organization and divisional performance? (Consider financial leverage, capital budgeting, and ratio analysis)
e. What is the role of the financial manager in the strategic management process?

3. Research and Development (R&D), (S) & (W)
a. What are the organization’s current R & D objectives, strategies, policies, and programs?
i) Are they clearly stated or implied from performance and/or budgets?
ii) Are they consistent with the organization’s mission, objectives, strategies, policies, and with internal and external environments?
iii) What is the role of technology in organization performance?
iv) Is the mix of basic, applied, and engineering research appropriate, given the organization mission and strategies?

b. What return is the organization receiving from its investment R&D?
c. Is the organization technologically competent?
d. How well does the organization’s investment in R&D compare with the investments of similar organizations?
e. What is the role of the R&D manager in the strategic management process?

4. Operations (Manufacturing/Service), (S) & (W)
a. What are the organization’s current manufacturing/service objectives, strategic, policies and programs?
i) Are they clearly stated, or merely implied from performance and/or budgets?
ii) Are they consistent with the organization’s mission, objectives, strategies, policies, and with internal and external environments?
b. What are the type and extent of operational capabilities of the organization?
i) If product-oriented, consider the following: plant facilities type of manufacturing system (a continuous mass production or intermittent job shop), age and type of equipment, degree and role of automation and/or robots, plant capacities and utilization, productivity ratings, availability and type of transportation.
ii) If service-oriented, consider service facilities (e.g., hospital, theater, or school buildings), type of operations systems (continuous services over time to the same clientele or intermittent service over time to a varied clientele), age and type of supporting equipment, degree and role of automation and/or use of mass communication devices (e.g., diagnostic machinery, videotape machines), facility capacities and utilization rates, efficiency ratings of professional/service personnel, availability and type of transportation to bring service staff and clientele together.

c. Are manufacturing or service facilities vulnerable to natural disasters, local or national strikes, reduction or limitation of resources from suppliers, substantial cost increases of materials, or nationalization by government?
d. Is operating leverage being used successfully with an appropriate mix of people and machines, in manufacturing firms, or of support staff to professionals, in service firms?
e. How well does the organization do relative to the competition? Consider costs per unit of labor, material, and overhead: downtime; inventory control management and/or scheduling of service staff; production ratings; facility utilization percentages; and number of clients successfully treated by category (if service firm), or percentage of orders shipped on time (if product firm).
i) What trends emerge from this analysis?
ii) What impact have these trends had on past performance and how will they probably affect future performance?
iii) Does this analysis support the organization’s past and pending strategic decisions?
f. Are operations managers using appropriate concepts and techniques to evaluate and improve current performance? Consider cost systems, quality control and reliability systems, inventory control management, personnel scheduling, learning curves, safety programs, engineering programs that can improve efficiency of manufacturing or of service. (Note: Pay particular attention to what quality measures the organization has taken relative to that of competitors. What impact has Total Quality Management (TQM) had on this organization?)
g. What is the role of the operations manager in the strategic management process?

5. Human Resources Management (HRM), (S) & (W)
a. What are the organization’s current HRM objectives, strategies, policies, and program?
i) Are they clearly stated, or merely implied from performance and/or budgets?
ii) Are they consistent with the organization’s mission, objectives, strategies, policies, and with internal and external environments?
b. How well is the organization’s HRM performing on improving the fit between the individual employee and the job? Consider turnover, grievances, strikes, layoffs, employee training, and quality of work life.
i) What trends emerge from this analysis?
ii) What impact have these trends had on past performance and how will they probably affect future performance?
iii) Does this analysis support the organization’s past and pending strategic decisions?
c. How does this organization’s HRM performance compare with that of similar organizations?
d. Are HRM managers using appropriate concepts and techniques to evaluate and improve organization performance? Consider the job analysis program, performance appraisal system, up-to-date job de******ions, training and development programs, attitude surveys, job design programs, quality of relationship with unions.
e. What is the role of the HRM manager in the strategic management process?

6. Information System (IS), (S) & (W)
a. What are the organization’s current IS objectives, strategies, policies, and programs?
i) Are they clearly stated, or merely implied from performance and/or budgets?
ii) Are they consistent with the organization’s mission, objectives, strategies, policies, and with internal and external environments?
b. How well is the organization’s IS performing on providing a useful database, automating routine clerical operations, assisting managers in making routine decisions, and providing information necessary for strategic decisions?
i) What trends emerge from this analysis?
ii) What impact have these trends had on past performance and how will they probably affect future performance?
iii) Does this analysis support the organization’s past and pending strategic decisions?
c. How does this organization’s IS performance and stage of development compare with that of similar organizations?
d. Are IS managers using appropriate concepts and techniques to evaluate and improve organization performance? Do they know to build and manage a complex database, conduct system analyses, and implement interactive decision-support system?
e. What is the role of the IS manager in the strategic management process?

III. Situation Analysis


Strategic Factors

What are the key internal and external factors that strongly affect the organization’s present and future performance?

1. What have been the key historical strategic factors for this organization?
2. What are the short-term key (0-1 years) strategic factors for this organization?
3. What are the intermediate-term key (1-3 years) strategic factors for this organization?
4. What are the long-term key (3-10 years) strategic factors for this organization?

Were these same strategic factors identified and assigned subtitles in the environmental scan?

Are the strategic factors identified as opportunities (O), threats (T), strengths (S) or weakness (W)? They should be.

Is there a “strategic fit” between external opportunities and internal strengths that will result in a distinctive competence (niche) relative to the competition?

Is a TOWS Matrix (and portfolio analysis for SBUs) appropriate. If so, have they been prepared and explained?

Revised Vision

Is the current vision (i.e., mission, objectives, strategies and policies) appropriate considering the key strategic factors and problems?

1. What business should the organization be in to successfully match their changing future environment?
2. Based on analysis of the Strategic Factors, should there be a revised/improved current mission statement?
3. What new goals should be written to support the new mission statement (Write at least one)?
4. What new measurable objectives/programs/functional strategies need to be written to support each goal statement (write at least three)?

Answer the question, “Is the corporation organized correctly to accomplish the revised mission, objectives, strategies and policies?”

1. What is the new/revised organization structure? (Draw a revised organizational chart or state why you think the current organization chart meets the strategic needs of the cooperation.)

IV. Strategic Alternatives (Consider at least three feasible alternatives)

What are the major feasible alternative strategies available to this organization? Justify them.

What does each strategy mean in relation to this specific organization (i.e., how would it be implemented)?

What makes each chosen strategy a feasible strategy (use the Model of Corporation Strategies/TOWS)?

1. Consider the component strategies related to stability, growth, and retrenchment.

What are the pros and cons of each strategic alternative?

1. This is the heart of the analysis. Have four or five in depth pros and cons for each alternative.

2. It is clear “why” an element has been classified as a pro or con (i.e., just because you say it is a pro or a con doesn’t make it one; explain/justify why you believe it is a pro or a con)?

V. Selection of the Best Strategy and Why It Was Chosen


Specify which strategic alternative you have chosen for the organization.

Justify your decision by comparing the strategy to each historic, short, mid and long-term strategic factor listed in the Situation Analysis. Describe the fit (including those factors that fit well and those that do not) between the strategy and the strategic factors. This analysis should provide strong justification for the strategy selection.

An important question is always “what impact does this decision have on the competition?”

Does this organization have strategic business units (SBU’s)? If so, the SBU strategies should be included in this portion of the analysis and the following question should be addressed.

What strategic business strategies (SBU) are appropriate for each major division of this organization?
NOTE: Use Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies to describe the strategy for each SBU (i.e., cost leadership, differentiation, cost focus, and focused differentiation).

VI. Implementation – How will the strategy be implemented?

PROGRAMS:

What specific programs and functional strategies (written as objectives) are required to implement the corporate/SBU strategies? Note: If the TOWS matrix was used to develop specific functional strategies in each of the four quadrants, then those strategies should be rewritten as objectives and used here along with other functional strategies.

Are the programs, SBU and functional strategies (objectives) related to and support the overall corporate strategy? Explain how?

Are the objectives classified by organizational function (Marketing, Finance, HRM, etc.)?

Has each functional strategy/objective been “priced out” to provide a realistic estimate of budgeted cost?

Is the implementation plan specific enough to give top management a good road map to follow?

Is this implementation plan worth the $80,000 your consulting firm will collect from the client? Would you be willing to pay that much for these implementation plans?

(Caution: Do not propose studies or plans or say top management should develop plans or do not recommend employing consultants to decide how to implement. It’s your job as the consultant to prescribe the details of how the strategy should be implemented.)

BUDGETED COST:

What is the total estimated/budgeted cost of this strategy?

Are the programs financially feasible?

What is the source of the recourses to implement the strategy (e.g., from existing resources or from external sources)? Be specific as to the exact source and nature of the resource.
1. Assuming a stability strategy, what can be done within current resources (assume no growth beyond inflation)?
2. Assuming a growth strategy, what added resources in what amounts are needed to implement the strategy; what is the source of these resource (e.g., borrowing, issuing stock, bond issues)?

“Worst Case” – What is the worst thing that can happen because of the decision and what is the probability of that happening (e.g., what is the risk)?

Has an “exit plan” been considered? What alternative strategy should be implemented if the best strategy fails: When and how should it be implemented? If the worst case happens, explain how the organization will retreat from the strategy before there are serious consequences such as bankruptcy.

VII. Control, Feedback and Evaluation (Information Management)

CONTROL: What are the critical operational and strategic success factors (i.e., key performance/management indicators)?

FEEDBACK: What is the source of the information for the success factors listed above and how will it be collected?

What operational and strategic reports (information feedback) are required, to whom should they go, and how often? What operational information should be reviewed daily/weekly? What strategic information should be reviewed monthly/yearly?

Can the current information system provide the information? If not, what changes should be made?

Can performance be pinpointed by area, unit, project, or function?

EVALUATION: How will success be measured? That is, what are the measurable performance standards/goals (i.e., $, %, # units, etc.) that will be used to evaluate success?

Are reward systems in place to recognize and reward success?

*Adapted from Wheelen, Thomas L. and Hungar, David J. Strategic Management and Business Policy, Fifth Edition, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading MS, 1995.
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من مواضيعي : تحسين الآداء
  رقم المشاركة : [ 2 ]
قديم 02-04-2011, 03:52 AM
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فعلاً نحن نفتقد الى تدقيق الخطة الاستراتيجية

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من مواضيع : الكفاح
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موضوع مغلق

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