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Basic Epidemiology

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قديم 02-28-2011, 11:39 PM
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تحسين الآداء will become famous soon enough



žWhat is Epidemiology?
žEpidemiology
žEpidemiology is the study of the determinants, distribution, and frequency of disease


žEpidemiologists study sick and well people to determine the crucial difference between those who get disease and those who are spared.

žEpidemiology

Is it a science?

Or is it a method?

žIs Epidemiology a Science
?


žWhat are the characteristics of a science?

žWhat disciplines are sciences?

žWhat disciplines are not sciences?

¡How do they differ from sciences?

žIs public health a science?

?

žIs Epidemiology a Science?

žScience is a creative endeavor

¢It relies on questioning, imagination, exploration

¢It seeks out empirical evidence

¢It tests ideas

Study questions

Hypotheses

žThe Essence of Science

“Ask an impertinent question, and you are on the way to a pertinent answer.”
ž

žEpidemiology

žEpidemiology weighs and balances

žEpidemiology contrasts and compares

žEpidemiologists use RATES

ž

¢events/population at risk

žEpidemiology

žNumerator

¡the number of people to whom something happened (i.e. they got sick, died, etc.)

ž

žDenominator

¡the population at risk -- all the people at risk for the event

žWhat is Epidemiology?

žSome describe it as the study of epidemics

žWhat is an epidemic?

ž

¡An epidemic occurs when there are significantly more cases of the same disease than past experience would have predicted.

ž Uses of Epidemiology

žTo study the cause (or etiology) of disease(s), or conditions, disorders, disabilities, etc.

¡determine the primary agent responsible or ascertain causative factors

¡determine the characteristics of the agent or causative factors

¡define the mode of transmission

¡determine contributing factors

¡identify and determine geographic patterns

ž Uses of Epidemiology

žTo determine, describe, and report on the natural course of disease, disability, injury, and death.

žTo aid in the planning and development of health services and programs

žTo provide administrative and planning data

ž Example: Use of Epidemiology

žIn the United States, the National Center for Health Statistics is a data source for information on health and disease

¡http://www.cdc.gov/nchs

žGlobally, the World Health Organization is a data source for information on health and disease

¡http://www.who.int

The Comparison of Crude Death Rate and Death Rates by Disease Groups Recorded in National Level And in Five Regions of Turkey, (Death/1000)

žž

ž Purpose of Epidemiology

žTo provide a basis for developing disease control and prevention measures for groups at risk.
ž
žThis translates into developing measures to prevent or control disease.

žTwo Broad Types of Epidemiology

žDe******ive Epidemiology

¡Examining the distribution of disease in a population, and observing the Basic features of its distribution
¡
žAnalytic Epidemiology
¡Testing a hypothesis about the cause of disease by studying how exposures relate to the disease

žDe******ive Epidemiology is the Antecedent to Analytical Epidemiology

žAnalytic epidemiology studies require information to ….

¢know where to look

¢know what to control for

¢develop viable hypotheses

žThree essential characteristics of disease that we look for in de******ive studies are...

žPerson

žPlace

žTime

žThree essential characteristics that are examined to study the cause(s) for disease in analytic epidemiology are...

žHost

žAgent

žEnvironment



žThe Epidemiologic Triangle


Epidemics arise when host, agent, and environmental factors are not in balance

žDue to new agent

žDue to change in existing agent (infectivity, pathogenicity, virulence)

žDue to change in number of susceptible in the population

žDue to environmental changes that affect transmission of the agent or growth of the agent

žEpidemiologic Activities

ž

ž…are often framed under the mantle of de******ive and analytic
epidemiology

¡De******ive epidemiology – person, place &time

¢Demographic distribution

¢Geographic distribution

¢Seasonal patterns etc.

¢Frequency of disease patterns

¡Useful for:

¢Allocating resources

¢Planning programs

¢Hypotheses development

žEpidemiologic Activities

žAnalytic epidemiology

¡built around the analysis of the relationship between two items

¢Exposures

¢Effects (disease)

¡looking for determinants or possible causes of disease

¡useful for

¢hypothesis testing
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من مواضيعي : تحسين الآداء
  رقم المشاركة : [ 3 ]
قديم 03-30-2012, 06:48 PM
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نسائم will become famous soon enoughنسائم will become famous soon enough
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